Info tech






In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers.

A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys (buttons) and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce lettersnumbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands.

In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface to type text and numbers into a word processortext editor or other programs. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also used for computer gaming, either with regular keyboards or by using keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is also used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows‘ Control-Alt-Delete combination, which brings up the system security options screen. A command-line interface is a type of user interface operated entirely through a keyboard, or another device doing the job of one.



Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) affect the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments and tendons. Workers in many different industries and occupations can be exposed to risk factors at work, such as lifting heavy items, bending, reaching overhead, pushing and pulling heavy loads, working in awkward body postures and performing the same or similar tasks repetitively. Exposure to these known risk factors for MSDs increases a worker’s risk of injury.

Work-related MSDs can be prevented. Ergonomics — fitting a job to a person — helps lessen muscle fatigue, increases productivity and reduces the number and severity of work-related MSDs.

Examples of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Tendinitis
  • Rotator cuff injuries (affects the shoulder)
  • Epicondylitis (affects the elbow)
  • Trigger finger
  • Muscle strains and low back injuries
Impact of MSDs in the Workplace
  • Work related MSDs are among the most frequently reported causes of lost or restricted work time.
  • According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in 2013, MSD1 cases accounted for 33% of all worker injury and illness cases.

Training is an important element in the ergonomic process. Training should be conducted in a language and vocabulary that all workers understand and is best provided by individuals who have experience with ergonomic issues in your particular industry. When training is effective workers will:

  • Learn the principles of ergonomics and their applications.
  • Learn about the proper use of equipment, tools, and machine controls.
  • Use good work practices, including proper lifting techniques.
  • Become more aware of work tasks that may lead to pain or injury.
  • Recognize early symptoms of MSDs.
  • Understand the importance of reporting and addressing early indications of MSDs before serious injuries develop.
  • Understand procedures for reporting work-related injuries and illnesses, as required by OSHA’s injury and illness recording and reporting regulation (29 CFR Part 1904).



THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM SKILLS – While the practice of skills-based hiring had existed for 20 years, the term itself originated in 2012 with the work of the Kellogg Foundation-funded New Options project in New Mexico. New Options developed the term in an attempt to distinguish between private employability testing and the rarer practice of having an employer set specific, independently verified, and publicly articulated goals for the skill expectations of job applicants. The public nature of the communication, usually in the form of want ads containing specific numeric skill scores, was intended to allow both school systems and individuals to more readily measure themselves against, and strive to meet, employer expectations.




Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health,[1] or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safetyhealth, and welfare of people at work. These terms also refer to the goals of this field,[2] so their use in the sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc.

The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment.[3] OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the United States, the term occupational health and safety is referred to as occupational health and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety for activities outside of work.[4]

In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees.[5] Statute law may in addition impose other general duties, introduce specific duties, and create government bodies with powers to regulate workplace safety issues: details of this vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Since 1950, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have shared a common definition of occupational health. It was adopted by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and revised at its twelfth session in 1995. The definition reads:

“The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: (i) the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity; (ii) the improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction which supports health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the undertakings. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking.”

— Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health[8]




Microsoft Office is a family of client softwareserver software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on 1 August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft WordMicrosoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On 10 July 2012, Softpedia reported that Office is used by over a billion people worldwide.[3]

Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. The most current desktop version is Office 2016 for Windows and macOS, released on 22 September 2015[4] and 9 July 2015,[5] respectively.

More recently, Microsoft developed Office Mobile, which are free-to-use versions of Office applications for mobile devices. Microsoft also produces and runs Office Online, a web-based version of core Office apps, which is included as part of a Microsoft account.






What is a database?

database is a collection of data that is stored in a computer system. Databases allow their users to enteraccess, and analyze their data quickly and easily. They’re such a useful tool that you see them all the time. Ever waited while a doctor’s receptionist entered your personal information into a computer, or watched a store employee use a computer to see whether an item was in stock? If so, then you’ve seen a database in action.

The easiest way to understand a database is to think of it as a collection of lists. Think about one of the databases we mentioned above: the database of patient information at a doctor’s office. What lists are contained in a database like this? To start with, there’s a list of patients’ names. Then there’s a list of past appointments, a list with medical history for each patient, a list of contact information, and so on.

This is true of all databases, from the simplest to the most complex. For instance, if you like to bake you might decide to keep a database containing the types of cookies you know how to make and the friends you give these cookies to. This is one of the simplest databases imaginable. It contains two lists: a list of your friends, and a list of cookies.

Why use a database?

If a database is essentially a collection of lists stored in tables and you can build tables in Excel, why do you need a real database in the first place? While Excel is great at storing and organizing numbers, Access is far stronger at handling non-numerical data, like names and descriptions. Non-numerical data plays a significant role in almost any database, and it’s important to be able to sort and analyze it.

However, the thing that really sets databases apart from any other way of storing data is connectivity. We call a database like the ones you’ll work with in Access a relational database. A relational database is able to understand how lists and the objects within them relate to one another. To explore this idea, let’s go back to the simple database with two lists: names of your friends, and the types of cookies you know how to make. You decide to create a third list to keep track of the batches of cookies you make and who they’re for. Because you’re only making cookies you know the recipe for and you’re only going to give them to your friends, this new list will get all of its information from the lists you made earlier.

An illustration of Connected lists

When you performed your search, you were entering your search terms into a formthat then created and ran a query based on your request. When the query finished searching the database’s tables for records that matched your search, you were shown a report that drew information from the query and the related tables—in this case, a list of books matching your search terms. You could represent the connections between the objects like this:

An illustration summarizing library catalog search for a book

Getting to know Access 2016

Access 2016 uses the Ribbon to organize commands, just like in Access 2013 and 2010. If you’ve used these versions before, Access 2016 will feel familiar. But if you are new to Access or have more experience with older versions, you should first take some time to become familiar with the Access 2016 interface.

Click the buttons in the interactive below to become familiar with the Access interface.

The Ribbon

The Ribbon contains all of the commands you will need to perform common tasks in Access. It has multiple tabs, each with several groups of commands.




Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves.[1][2]

Copyright is a form of intellectual property, applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require “fixing” copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders.[3][4][5][6] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution.[7]

Copyrights are considered “territorial rights”, which means that they do not extend beyond the territory of a specific jurisdiction. While many aspects of national copyright laws have been standardized through international copyright agreements, copyright laws vary by country.[8]

Typically, the duration of a copyright spans the author’s life plus 50 to 100 years (that is, copyright typically expires 50 to 100 years after the author dies, depending on the jurisdiction). Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, but most recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions.

Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing “fair” exceptions to the creator’s exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights. The development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, and inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law. Simultaneously, businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.



Locating jobs

Common methods of job hunting are:

  • Finding a job through a friend or an extended business networkpersonal network, or social media
  • Using an employment website
  • Job listing search engines
  • Looking through the classifieds in newspapers
  • Using a private or public employment agency or recruiter
  • Looking on a company’s web site for open jobs, typically in its applicant tracking system
  • Going to a job fair
  • Using professional guidance such as outplacement services that give training in writing a résumé, applying for jobs and how to be successful at interview.
  • Visiting an organization to find out whether it is recruiting staff or will be doing so in the near future.
  • A Portfolio is very important if you are a Web Developer or Web Designer. Here are five reasons why you should replace your traditional resume by Online Portfolio.
    • Easy to find your contact information
    • You can Showcase some projects you’ve worked on
    • You can be very creative and include your personality (hobbies and quirks)
    • If you are starting and don’t have real experience you can build:
      • A Blog
      • An HTML5 game
      • An Online Quiz
      • A Website for a friend or family member
      • Informative site – Educational or Funny




Electronic Mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages (“mail“) between people using electronic devices. Email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the Internet. Some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today’s email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need to connect only briefly, typically to a mail server or a webmail interface, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.

Originally an ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been standardized, but as of 2017 it has not been widely adopted.[2]

The history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards for encoding email messages published as early as 1973 (RFC 561). An email message sent in the early 1970s looks very similar to a basic email sent today. Email had an important role in creating the Internet,[3] and the conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current services.